Comparison of cost of energy of primary power mediums
Krushnevich T.K.
candidate of engineerings sciences
The Gas Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
.  tel/fax: +38 (044) 456-20-97
УДК 66.012.3

Розглянуто енергетичний потенціал різних енергоносіїв з точки зору відбору постачальників, наведено теплоенергетичні показники різних енергоносіїв. Розрахована вартість одержання одного кіловата теплової або електричної енергії, що є в основних енергоносіях, в залежності від ринкової ціни їх. Для кращого використання табличних даних наведено графічну інтерпретацію одержаних даних. Читать далее (RU) >>>


The energy potential of various energy carriers from the point of view of a choice of the supplier is considered, heat power parameters of the various energy carriers are resulted. The cost of 1 kW heat or power energy production if main energy carries depending on it commercial value is calculated. For better application of using tabulated data result their graphic interpretation are represented

енергоносії, потенціал, показники, теплова енергія, ціна   energy carriers, potential, parameters, thermal energy, the price

Power potential of different power mediums is considered from point of choice of supplier, the teploenergeticheskie indexes of widespread power mediums are resulted. The cost of receipt of one kilowatt of thermal or electric energy, contained in basic power mediums is expected, depending on a market price them. For comfort of using tabular information graphic interpretation of findings is resulted.

The change of cost of basic power mediums (natural gas and oil) results in the questions of cost estimation of basic and alternative power mediums. For comparison and estimation of cost of energy of primary power mediums this methodology is developed. It allows to estimate current expenses on power mediums and get a prognosis at a change a cost them in the future.

This approach is an evaluation, for more exact prognosis it is necessary to know exact teplofizicheskie information of concrete power medium and change of their indexes in the future. For example, at replacement of supplier oil or gas of teplofizicheskie property them can differentiate considerably. It is therefore necessary to enter in calculations the cost of thermal equivalent of power medium of type of Britannic thermal unit (BTU), but not cost of ton or м3.

The same problem touches the suppliers of natural gas from gazokondensatnykh deposits. Gas-transport enterprises accept gas in м3, but not in calories or joules.

For the analysis of cost indexes of basic primary power mediums will accept lower calorie content them from next usrednennym data, to resulted in a table 1.
Table 1

Name of mediums Dimension kJoule kCalorie kW*h
Natural Gas st. m3 33 488 8 000 9,302
Oil kg 41 860 10 000 11,628
Fuel oil kg 39 767 9 500 11,046
Ton of conditional fuel kg 29 300 7 000 8,139
Ethyl spirit, 96% kg 25 958 6 201 7,211
Coal is a stone worker kg 25 116 6 000 6,967
Coal is brown kg 14 232 3 400 3,954
Gas is a generator kg 15 676 3 745 4,355
Synthesis-gas kg 6 279 1 500 1,774

The higher heating value of fuel is not examined, because there can be different terms of cooling of products of combustion for the receipt of the condensed moisture.

In calculations for comparison the size of expenses is accepted in the cents of the USA on the receipt of 1 kW*h energy (electric or thermal) without the account of efficiency of the use of potential energy of the power mediums resulted higher. It will allow to estimate the expenses of facilities on acquisition of primary power mediums.

We will mark that for the receipt of electric power KPD of different drives can be from 18 to 60 %. Thermal energy can be got with KPD 80-97 %.

The results of calculations are resulted in a table 2.

Table 2. Specific indexes of cost of energy of primary power medium (cents after 1 kW*h).
Cost of ton, dollars. Natural gas, 1000 m3. Нефть, тонна. Fuel oil, ton. Brown coal, ton. Anthracite coal, ton. Ethanol, ton. Synthesis-gas, ton Generator gas, ton
 50 0,537 0,43 0,4526 1,265 0,7166 0,694 2,866 1,148
100 1,075 0,86 0,9053 2,530 1,4333 1,3868 5,733 2,296
200 2,15 1,72 1,8105 5,06 2,8666 2,7737 11,46 4,592
300 3,225 2,58 2,7158 7,588 4,3 4,1605 17,2 6,888
400 4,300 3,44 3,621 10,117 5,7333 5,5474 22,93 9,184
500 5,375 4,3 4,526 12,647 7,1666 6,9342 28,66 11,480
600 6,45 5,16 5,431   8,6 8,3210 34,4 13,766
700 7,525 6,02 6,337   10,0333   40,13 16,072

The followings properties of power mediums are accepted: a closeness of oil and fuel oil is 0,8 kg/l (limits are from 0,76 to 0,85 kg/l), a closeness of ethanol is 0,79 kg/l, closeness of generator gas - 0,943 кг/ст.м3, the ton of oil makes 7,863118 barrels (A barrel is 158,97 l).

For example, 1 kW*h of primary energy at price 3 cents can be got from oil by a cost $346  for a 1 ton, fuel oil for 332 $/ton, coal brown for 117 $/ton, coal stone for 208 $/ton, ethanol for 213 $/ton, natural gas after 276 doll after 1 000 м3, sintez-gaza for 52 $/ton, gas of generator 130 $/ton, tons of conditional fuel of 243 $/ton.

From other side, it is possible to be oriented on the cost of one of power mediums and compare expenses on other power mediums. For example, at the cost of oil of 62 dollar/barel = a 487,51 $/ton cost of one кВт.ч will be 4.3 cent. At the same price it is possible to purchase fuel oil at the cost of him 473 $/ton, natural gas - 393 долл/1000 м3, ton of conditional fuel - 346 $/ton, ethanol - 306 $/ton, coal stones - 298 $/ton, gas is a generator - 186 $/ton, coal is brown - 168 $/ton, synthesis-gas - 74 $/ton.

These examples show that at the cost of oil of 62 долл/б natural gas must have a cost of 393 долл/1000 м3 for the receipt of the same amount of energy.

If to take for basis coal stone at price of 70 $/ton, it will correspond the cost of natural gas of 90 $/1000 м3 or 14,625 dollar/barel oils. But coal requires preliminary preparation to incineration and expenses on zoloudalenie and cleaning of products of combustion unlike natural gas.

We pay attention, that the resulted evaluation information behave to efficiency of the use of power mediums 100 %, actually efficiency will be considerably less than for every type of power medium..

Power potential of different power mediums. Cost of receipt of one kilowatt of thermal or electric energy, contained in basic power mediums, depending on a market price them